Area: 64,589 sq.km or 24,937 sq.miles.
Regions: Kurzeme, Zemgale, Vidzeme, Latgale.
Total national border length: 1,862 km.
Length of Latvia’s Baltic coastline: 494 km.
Borders with:Estonia, Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania.
Short history of Latvia
The Republic of Latvia was founded on 18 November 1918 (18 November is a national holiday and the day of proclamation of Latvia’s independence). Following the end of the fight for freedom in 1920, several countries recognised Latvia’s independence de jure, and 16 foreign missions were established in Riga. Latvia lost its independence in 1940 after the beginning of the World War II. It was first occupied by the Soviet Union (from 1940 to 1941). Then the occupation by Nazi Germany (from 1941 to 1945) followed. However, the Soviet Union regained the power and occupied Latvia again (from 1945 to 1991). As a result of Gorbachev’s reforms, on 21 August 1991 Latvia declared restoration of its independence de facto. It restored the international diplomatic relations and joined the United Nations (UN).
Latvia originates from the ancient Latgalians which was one of the four Indo-European tribes that together with Semigallians, Couronians and Selonians was involved in the ethnogenesis of Latvians.
Flag of Latvia
The flag of Latvia with three horizontal stripes the colours of which are maroon and white is one of the oldest flags in the world dating back to the events in the town of Cēsis in the 13th century. According to the legend a fatally wounded military leader together with its sword was wrapped in a white sheet and the blood stained both edges of the sheet. After the leader’s death this sheet was used as a flag in the next battle which led Latvians to a victory. The design of Latvia’s flag is officially adopted and provided for under the Constitution of Latvia – Satversme.
Geography of Latvia and neighbouring countries
Latvia is the central country of the Baltic States and is situated in the Northeastern Europe. Latvia’s territory the terrain of which formed in the ice age consists of rich lowlands in the plains and moderate hills. The most of it is lower than 100 metres below sea level. Latvia has a vast network of rivers and lakes consisting of more than twelve thousand rivers and approximately two thousand lakes. There are pine forests, dunes and white-sand beaches all over Latvia. The sea along Latvia’s coastline is very shallow, and the Gulf of Riga is no deeper than 26 metres. The highest mountain in Latvia is Gaiziņkalns (312 m). The neighbour countries of Latvia are Estonia, Latvia, Russia and Belarus, and the strategic location of Latvia facilitates the development of trade and culture.
Climate of Latvia
Latvia lies in the temperate climate zone, and its climate is affected by the proximity of the sea and air masses from the Atlantic Ocean. Latvia has four distinctive seasons. Summers are mild, but winters – moderately cold; the humidity level is relatively high, and there is frequent rainfall. The average temperature in summer is 15.8°C and in winter – -4.5°C. Temperature records have been accordingly 36.4°C and -43.2°C. Latvia’s weather is marked by frequent change of air masses due to 170 fronts crossing the territory in February, July and October. These fronts are accompanied by strong winds which are responsible for the maximum occurrences of snowstorms in February, for the high level of rainfall and thunderstorms in July and for the strong winds, even storms, in October.
Nature of Latvia
With more than 44 % of its territory covered by forests and the vast network of rivers and thousands of lakes, Latvia is one of the best preserved
sanctuaries for various wild animals. More than 27,000 of flora and fauna species live under natural conditions in territories that are still relatively untouched by humans. Many rare species, for example, black storks and lesser spotted eagles live in their habitats which are mixed forests, swamps and meadows. Latvia is also densely populated by otters, beavers, lynxes and wolves, as well as large number of deer, elks, foxes and wild boars. It is an interesting place for ornithologists and other birdwatchers, especially the coastline and wetland zones during the migration periods, as well as for hunters during the official hunt periods.
Population of Latvia
The indigenous population of Latvia is Latvians and Fenno-Ugrian Lives (Livonians). The existing ethnic composition is the result of post-war massive migrations. The following comparison can be made – 77 % of the population were Latvians in 1935, whereas in 1989 this number had decreased to 52 %. Population was 2,248,374 in 2010, and the population dispersal is the following: 68 % live in cities and towns and 32 % – in rural areas.
Latvian is a Baltic language belonging to the Indo-European language family. The only language closely related to the Latvian language is Lithuanian. Latvian has been recognised as one of the most ancient and relatively unchanged languages in the world. It is the native language of approximately 1.5 million people.
Russian and English are also quite common in Latvia, but German, French and Scandinavian languages are rather rare. Latvian is the only official language in Latvia; however, there are several mechanisms in place to provide people who do not know Latvian language with effective legal protection.
The ethnic composition of Latvia is the following: 59.4 % are Latvians, 27.6 % – Russians, 3.6 % –Belarusians, 2.5 % – Ukrainians, 2.3 % – Poles, 1.3 % – Lithuanians, 3.3 % – other nationalities.
Education in Latvia
Latvia has a relatively high per capita ratio in respect to education. The state ensures free primary education and offers a large number of higher education programs. Foreign students from the Member States of the European Union pays for education the same amount as domestic students, and the Latvian education is highly regarded abroad. There are also funded schools for language minority groups in Latvia where the subjects are taught bilingually – in Latvian and the respective foreign language.